docker网络模型

docker网络模型


Docker网络模型详解

  • docker安装完会修改默认的防火墙规则
    • 将FORWARD链默认的accept修改为drop
    • 如果用到转发的功能可以修改docker的启动文件如下
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修改docker的启动文件

[Service]
Type=notify
# the default is not to use systemd for cgroups because the delegate issues still
# exists and systemd currently does not support the cgroup feature set required
# for containers run by docker

ExecStartPost=/usr/sbin/iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT

ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd -H unix://
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
TimeoutSec=0
RestartSec=2
Restart=always

~]# systemctl daemon-reload
~]# systemctl restart docker


~]# iptables -vnL
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
  • 四种网络
    • 桥网络bridge:
      • 默认docker0 NET桥
    • 共享桥、共享接口:(共享网络名称空间)
      • 联盟式网络
    • 容器直接使用宿主机网络的共享
      • host网络
    • 空网络、无网络、none网络
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      查看docker可以使用的网络类型
      [root@centos7 ~]# docker network ls
      NETWORK ID NAME DRIVER SCOPE
      38c0658bea06 bridge bridge local
      9b7ecc0031ef host host local
      c0de873b7341 none null local

共享桥

  • 无网络:仅lo,仅自己通讯
    • –network none
  • 桥网络 (详情查看 dacker network inspact brige)
    • –network brige (默认)
  • 容器间共享网络(联盟式网络)
    • –network contariner:指定已有网容器(相同主机名,不同容器,但是网络是共享,仅共享网络,可以基于127.0.0.1通讯)
  • 共享主机网络
    • –network host

无网络

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[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name pc1 -it --rm --network none busybox:latest
/ # ifconfig
lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:65536 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

桥网络

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# (默认docker0 NET桥,详情查看 dacker network inspact brige)
[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name pc2 -it --rm --network bridge busybox:latest
/ # ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:AC:11:00:02
inet addr:172.17.0.2 Bcast:172.17.255.255 Mask:255.255.0.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:6 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:508 (508.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:65536 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

#查看默认的net桥的详情
[root@centos7 ~]# docker network inspect bridge

容器间共享网络

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#容器间共享:NET,IPC,UTS

第一个容器
[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name pc2 -it --rm --network bridge busybox:latest
/ # ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:AC:11:00:02
inet addr:172.17.0.2 Bcast:172.17.255.255 Mask:255.255.0.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:7 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:578 (578.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:65536 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)
/ # hostname
45ec3fb534cd


第二个容器(共享第一个容器的地址)
[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name pc3 -it --rm --network container:pc2 busybox:latest
/ # ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:AC:11:00:02
inet addr:172.17.0.2 Bcast:172.17.255.255 Mask:255.255.0.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:648 (648.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:65536 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)
/ # hostname
45ec3fb534cd

共享宿主机网络

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  [root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name pc4 -it --rm --network host  busybox:latest
/ # ifconfig
docker0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:D4:BB:AF:CF
inet addr:172.17.0.1 Bcast:172.17.255.255 Mask:255.255.0.0
inet6 addr: fe80::42:d4ff:febb:afcf/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:21 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:41 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:3522 (3.4 KiB) TX bytes:3758 (3.6 KiB)

ens33 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:14:4D:62
inet addr:192.168.52.1 Bcast:192.168.52.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::bbfd:d184:6a67:3c45/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:264 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:38 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:29263 (28.5 KiB) TX bytes:4779 (4.6 KiB)

ens37 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:14:4D:6C
inet addr:172.18.135.1 Bcast:172.18.135.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::4587:5c47:4c05:570b/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:33565 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:8191 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:14694609 (14.0 MiB) TX bytes:1013772 (990.0 KiB)

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:65536 Metric:1
RX packets:98 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:98 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:10996 (10.7 KiB) TX bytes:10996 (10.7 KiB)

veth7ff20ba Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr C2:81:A1:34:BA:5F
inet6 addr: fe80::c081:a1ff:fe34:ba5f/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:648 (648.0 B)

virbr0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 52:54:00:FF:0B:1F
inet addr:192.168.122.1 Bcast:192.168.122.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

/ # hostname
centos7.com

其他网络相关的命令

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############################指定主机名##########################
-h, --hostname string
Container host name
#默认的主机名是docker容器对应的id
[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name p1 -it --rm --hostname p1.com busybox:latest
/ # hostname
p1.com

##########################外部指定host文件以及文件的内容############
--add-host list
Add a custom host-to-IP mapping (host:ip)
#适用于容器间使用主机名通信,可多次使用
[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name p1 -it --rm --hostname p1.com --add-host wg.p1.com:172.18.0.1 busybox:latest
/ # cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 localhost
::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
172.18.0.1 wg.p1.com
172.17.0.2 p1.com p1
[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name p1 -it --rm --hostname p1.com --add-host wg.p1.com:172.18.0.1 --add-host www.p1.com:8.8.8.8 busybox:latest

#############创建容器时指定NDS服务器地址以及搜索域#################
--dns list Set custom DNS servers
--dns-search list Set custom DNS search domains

[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name pc1 -it --rm --hostname pc1.com --add-host www.pc1.com:1.1.1.1 --dns 8.8.8.8 --dns 114.114.114.114 --dns-search com busybox
/ # cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 localhost
::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
1.1.1.1 www.pc1.com
172.17.0.2 pc1.com pc1
/ # cat /etc/resolv.conf
search com
nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 114.114.114.114

服务暴漏 expose,public

让私有网络中的主机上的服务被外部主机访问到—DNAT

  • -p选项的使用格式

    • -p <containerPort>
      • 将指定的容器端口映射至宿主机所有地址的一个动态端口
    • -p <hostPort>:<containerPort>
      • 将容器端口<containerPort>映射至宿主机上指定的主机端口<hostPort>(宿主机上所有地址的此端口)
    • -p <ip>::<containerPort>

      • 将指定的容器端口<containerPort>映射至宿主机指定<ip>的动态端口
    • -p <ip>:<hostPort>:<containerPort>
      • 将指定的容器端口<containerPort>映射至宿主机指定<ip>的端口<hostPort>
      • “动态端口”指随机端口,具体的映射结果可使用docker port命令查看
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-p选项的使用演示,可重复使用多次
##################################################################
########docker容器的80端口映射宿主机上的随机端口#####################
##################################################################
[root@centos7 ~]# docker container run --name pc5 -it -p 80 busybox
#ctrl + p ctrl + q
#宿主机查看防火墙
[root@centos7 ~]# iptables -t nat -vnL
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT 214 packets, 20360 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
0 0 DOCKER all -- * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 ADDRTYPE match dst-type LOCAL
Chain DOCKER (2 references)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
0 0 RETURN all -- docker0 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
0 0 DNAT tcp -- !docker0 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 tcp dpt:32770 to:172.17.0.2:80

#可以访问宿主机的映射的端口从而访问容器的httpd服务
[root@centos7 ~]# docker exec -it pc5 /bin/sh
/ # /bin/httpd -h /etc
/ # ps
PID USER TIME COMMAND
1 root 0:00 sh
7 root 0:00 /bin/sh
13 root 0:00 /bin/httpd -h /etc
14 root 0:00 ps
/ # read escape sequence
[root@centos7 ~]# curl 172.18.135.1:32770
<HTML><HEAD><TITLE>404 Not Found</TITLE></HEAD>
<BODY><H1>404 Not Found</H1>
The requested URL was not found
</BODY></HTML>

################################################################
###########docker容器的80端口映射宿主机上的所有地址的80端口#########
################################################################
[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name pc2 -it --network bridge -p 80:80 busybox
/ #

#查看防火墙
[root@centos7 ~]# iptables -t nat -vnL
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT 42 packets, 3276 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
0 0 DOCKER all -- * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 ADDRTYPE match dst-type LOCAL
Chain DOCKER (2 references)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
0 0 RETURN all -- docker0 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
0 0 DNAT tcp -- !docker0 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 tcp dpt:80 to:172.17.0.2:80
[root@centos7 ~]# docker container ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
7e622f638dba busybox "sh" 3 minutes ago Up 3 minutes 0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp pc2

################################################################
##########docker容器的80端口映射宿主机上的指定地址的80端口##########
################################################################
#第一个端口为宿主机的端口,第二个端口为容器的端口
[root@centos7 ~]# docker container run --name pc1 -it --rm --network bridge -p 172.18.135.1:80:80 busybox
/ #

#容器的80地址绑定到宿主机的135.1地址的80端口
[root@centos7 ~]# iptables -t nat -vnL
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT 9 packets, 702 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
0 0 DOCKER all -- * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 ADDRTYPE match dst-type LOCAL
Chain DOCKER (2 references)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
0 0 RETURN all -- docker0 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
0 0 DNAT tcp -- !docker0 * 0.0.0.0/0 172.18.135.1 tcp dpt:80 to:172.17.0.2:80
[root@centos7 ~]# docker container ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
e87a037e4348 busybox "sh" About a minute ago Up About a minute 172.18.135.1:80->80/tcp pc1

#################################################################
##########docker容器的80端口映射宿主机上的指定地址的随机端口#########
#################################################################
[root@centos7 ~]# docker container run --name pc1 -it --rm --network bridge -p 172.18.135.1::80 busybox
/ # [root@centos7 ~]#

#宿主机检验
[root@centos7 ~]# iptables -t nat -vnL
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT 15 packets, 1151 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
0 0 DOCKER all -- * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 ADDRTYPE match dst-type LOCAL
Chain DOCKER (2 references)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
0 0 RETURN all -- docker0 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
0 0 DNAT tcp -- !docker0 * 0.0.0.0/0 172.18.135.1 tcp dpt:32768 to:172.17.0.2:80
[root@centos7 ~]# docker container ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
8dd54f2321cd busybox "sh" About a minute ago Up About a minute 172.18.135.1:32768->80/tcp pc1

##################################################################
######################端口映射关系查看##############################
###################################################################
[root@centos7 ~]# docker container port pc2
443/tcp -> 192.168.52.1:443
80/tcp -> 172.18.135.1:80

范例:-p 选项多重复使用

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[root@centos7 ~]# docker container run --name pc2 -it --rm --network bridge -p 172.18.135.1:80:80 -p 192.168.52.1:443:443 busybox
/ # [root@centos7 ~]#
[root@centos7 ~]#
[root@centos7 ~]# docker container ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
028e3e9f581f busybox "sh" 13 seconds ago Up 13 seconds 172.18.135.1:80->80/tcp, 192.168.52.1:443->443/tcp pc2
8dd54f2321cd busybox "sh" 5 minutes ago Up 5 minutes 172.18.135.1:32768->80/tcp pc1

自建网络类型

  • docker network create [OPTIONS] NETWORK
    • -d, –driver string #指定网络类型,默认为bridge,NET
    • –subnet strings #指定子网地址,默认第一个地址设置为桥接口(网关)的地址
    • –gateway strings #不使用默认的手动指定网关
    • –ip-range strings #指定网络分配的地址,如果不指定则除网关外全部分配
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############################自建网络地址######################
[root@centos7 ~]# docker network create -d bridge --subnet 10.0.0.0/24 mybr0
9902c4e06158ac6bcbabd2aa917b421e3b90d10100c7c457214da834268946e2
[root@centos7 ~]# docker network ls
NETWORK ID NAME DRIVER SCOPE
499e8e1a5fe6 bridge bridge local
9b7ecc0031ef host host local
9902c4e06158 mybr0 bridge local
c0de873b7341 none null local
[root@centos7 ~]# ifconfig
br-9902c4e06158: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 10.0.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 10.0.0.255
ether 02:42:c9:35:05:ce txqueuelen 0 (Ethernet)
RX packets 384 bytes 43480 (42.4 KiB)
RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0
TX packets 38 bytes 4779 (4.6 KiB)
TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0

####################将新创建的容器添加到自建的网络中###############
[root@centos7 ~]# docker run --name pc1 --rm -it --network mybr1 busybox
[root@centos7 ~]# docker exec -it pc1 /bin/sh
[root@centos7 ~]# docker exec pc1 ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:C0:A8:02:02
inet addr:192.168.2.2 Bcast:192.168.2.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:24 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:2650 (2.5 KiB) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)
#可以自己修改网卡名字
[root@centos7 ~]# ifconfig br-9902c4e06158 down
[root@centos7 ~]# ip link set br-9902c4e06158 name mybr0
[root@centos7 ~]# ifconfig mybr0 up
#但是要重新启动docker
[root@centos7 ~]# systemctl daemon-reload
[root@centos7 ~]# systemctl restart docker

######################将此容器连接到bridge网络中#################
[root@centos7 ~]# docker network connect bridge pc1
[root@centos7 ~]# docker exec pc1 ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:C0:A8:02:02
inet addr:192.168.2.2 Bcast:192.168.2.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:24 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:2650 (2.5 KiB) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:AC:11:00:02
inet addr:172.17.0.2 Bcast:172.17.255.255 Mask:255.255.0.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:7 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:578 (578.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)
#####################将一个网络接口从此容器中拆除###################
[root@centos7 ~]# docker network disconnect bridge pc1
[root@centos7 ~]# docker exec pc1 ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:C0:A8:02:02
inet addr:192.168.2.2 Bcast:192.168.2.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:24 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:2650 (2.5 KiB) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

修改默认的docker0桥

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自定义docker0桥的网络属性信息:/etc/docker/daemon.json文件
[root@centos7 ~]# vim /etc/docker/daemon.json
{
"registry-mirrors": ["https://xr8r3tc3.mirror.aliyuncs.com"],
"bip": "192.168.1.5/24",
"fixed-cidr": "10.20.0.0/16",
"fixed-cidr-v6": "2001:db8::/64",
"mtu": 1500,
"default-gateway": "10.20.1.1",
"default-gateway-v6": "2001:db8:abcd::89",
"dns": ["10.20.1.2","10.20.1.3"]
}

核心选项为bip,即bridge ip之意,用于指定docker0桥自身的IP地址;其它选项可通过此地址计算得出。
[root@centos7 ~]# systemctl daemon-reload
[root@centos7 ~]# systemctl restart docker

文档路径:
https://docs.docker.com/engine/userguide/networking/default_network/custom-docker0/
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